Produced in the 18th century, Chinese export porcelain was crafted with the same technical virtuosity as Chinese Imperial porcelain but designed to Western taste. Its continued appeal is testament to the incredible interaction of Chinese artisans and Western importers who, without common language or culture and separated by vast oceans, together promoted the spread of these wares. Bulk-ordered blue and white porcelain decorated with generic mountain landscapes comprised the overwhelming majority of China Trade cargoes. A pair of Dutch market semi-eggshell porcelain soup plates, Yongzheng period, circa These objects reflected the absolute latest in fashion, not just in their decorations but also in their forms, which evolved as trends emerged and 18th-century cuisine developed. These wares were painted to order in China after popular Western paintings and prints, with scenes ranging from literary to topographical, mythological or historical. A further category of Chinese export wares includes those modelled after fashionable European silver forms. From soup tureens, tea services, candlesticks and candelabra to ewers and wine coolers, these pieces offer a fascinating mix of Chinese decoration and Western shape. A grisaille, gilt and sepia tea service, Qianlong period, circa When collecting in this category, look for quality of modelling and rarity of form, as well as attractive decoration and superior enamelling or painting.
Chinese Porcelain Marks
If presented with the Chinese vase pictured below, how should an appraiser with no specific knowledge of Chinese ceramics approach it to determine if it is fake or authentic? This may sound like a strange question, but the answers to it are critical to successfully appraising Chinese ceramics. This article will examine the most important strategies for identifying, dating and appraising Chinese ceramics, and then apply those strategies to demonstrate the reasons why the vase illustrated above, is in fact, a fake.
Most appraisers rely too much on visual assessment alone. The touch or feel of an object is a critical component which should be considered when determining age and authenticity. How heavy is it?
Dating Canton Porcelain. Between to approximately the United States was the principal market for all Chinese export porcelain, although there was.
This should be read in conjunction with our catalogue. The technique of onglaze enamelling Jingdezhen porcelain began in the early Ming dynasty. The colours were derived from metallic ores, including: iron, manganese, cobalt and copper. During the ensuing three hundred years the refinement and increased complexity of the palette allowed the porcelain decorators to reach heights of sophistication paralleled only in the exclusive Nabeshima porcelains of Japan during the Edo period and in Europe in the 18th century.
The Chinese potter had a number of combinations available to him by the beginning of the Qing dynasty in , although only one wucai literally “five colours” was generally employed. Catalogue number 46 i s a typical example of mid 17th century colouring. Turquoise may be found on a few pieces at this date but it was more popular in the late Ming and again from the early 18th century. Finally black, which is used mainly for outlining or detailing is a combination of manganese and iron.
Overall there is a somewhat weighty or sombre feel to most wucai porcelains, at least by comparison with the later famille verte porcelains, probably because of the dominating presence of the dark cobalt. Themes on the polychrome wares of this time, the so called ‘Transitional’ period, are not much different from contemporary blue and white narrative subjects based on romantic tales or epics; iconic figures, particularly Daoist immortals, sometimes shown isolated in a bleak spare landscape; large scale flowers or other vegetation.
A development of these mid 17th century years was the use of all covering or continuous decoration i. This is most clearly seen on blue and white wares where a story is wrapped around the contours of the vessel, only interrupted by a shoal of clouds or banana plantain. It is perhaps better observed with natural subjects such as on the above mentioned jar no.
Chinese export porcelain
This is a list of Chinese porcelain pieces that have been decorated in such a way that the decoration includes a date. The dates are almost exclusively given as Chinese cyclical dates , which are repeated in 60th year cycles. Without a reference to the period of the reigning emperor, it is thus possible to by mistake date a piece 60 years back or forward in time. This practice have for various reasons continued up until today. The modernization of China by scholars, teachers and students alike started during the mid 19th century.
In late Guangxu period, around , along with Dr Sun’s revolution the process was in full swing.
Chinese Export Porcelain Plate, decorated for Dutch market, ca. Plate with stylized Iron-red Floral decoration and gilt accents, dating from the Qianlong period.
Chinese export porcelain includes a wide range of Chinese porcelain that was made almost exclusively for export to Europe and later to North America between the 16th and the 20th century. Whether wares made for non-Western markets are covered by the term depends on context. Chinese ceramics made mainly for export go back to the Tang dynasty if not earlier, though initially they may not be regarded as porcelain. It is typically not used as a descriptive term for the much earlier wares that were produced to reflect Islamic taste and exported to the Middle East and Central Asia , though these were also very important, apparently driving the development of Chinese blue and white porcelain in the Yuan and Ming dynasties see Chinese influences on Islamic pottery.
Longquan celadon , which is mostly not porcelain on Western definitions, is one of the wares to produce large dishes that reflected Islamic dining habits, rather than the deeper bowls used by the Chinese. In general wares made for export, especially in the early periods, were “mainly strong and rather roughly-finished articles”,  compared to those for the elite domestic market, to allow for the stresses of transport, and less sophisticated customers.
Other types of Chinese wares made mainly for export to other markets may or may not be covered; they are certainly described as export wares in discussing the Chinese industry, but much discussion in Western sources only refers to wares intended for Europe. The other types include Swatow ware c. Chinese celadons were exported to most of Eurasia , but not Europe, between roughly the Tang and the early Ming dynasties.
Chinese Export Porcelain for the West
Prior to that a proliferation of private companies had been operating in Jingdezhen, Nanchang, Jiujiang and many other centres in Jiangxi and other provinces since the end of WWII in By the mid-late s most of these partnerships had been centralised into larger all-government co-operatives for the production of large scale factory-made porcelains. The large majority were porcelains made for export. At the same time, the new government set up Ceramic Teaching Schools and Institutes, from which more specialised and more exclusive porcelains were produced, ceramics artists trained and new technologies developed.
Manufacturer Date Range: Manufacturer Location: Chinese Export Porcelain, Standard Patterns and Forms, to Atglen, PA.
In this case study dedicated to Chinese style ceramic sherds excavated from archeological sites in East Africa, we have made use of multiple approaches. First, from a local viewpoint, the density of Chinese style ceramic sherds at a site may be used as a measurement tool to evaluate the degree of its involvement in long distance trade. Chinese-style ceramics travelled from the production sites in China and South-East Asia to East Africa, by passing successively from different regional networks, that formed the multi-partner global networks.
Thus, the periodization of Chinese imports in East Africa appears to show that each phase appears to fall within a particular configuration of these successive trade networks. From the global context of Sino-Swahili trade, the inequitable nature of the cheap Chinese ceramics traded against highly valued African commodities should also be mentioned. Nevertheless, our study shows the powerful social symbolic of Chinese ceramics in the Swahili world.
From the local lens, it is the phenomenon of a changing value of Chinese ceramics in the long-distance trade. Consequently, these objects actively contributed to the expanding power of the merchant elite, who took full possession of it both materially and symbolically. According to Japanese historian Takano Terada, the wealth of Swahili city-states during the medieval era is also directly linked to trade with China. According to Chinese evidence, East African products imported into China during the medieval period essentially consisted of wild birds and animals, elephant tusks, rhinoceros horns, amber, tortoise shells, ebony Diospyros ebenum J.
Koenig, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. From the tomb of the second king of Nanyue r. On the other hand, according to Chinese written sources, the main Chinese export commodities comprised, in general, textiles, ceramics, coins, and some raw materials such as copper, tin, and lead. As far as Chinese products exported to East Africa are concerned, at present archaeologists have excavated only four types of vestiges: ceramics, coins, textiles, and glassware.
Antique Chinese Ceramics
Antique Rose Medallion china was a popular Chinese porcelain import during the 19th and 20th centuries. This type of china can still be easily found for sale today. Rose Medallion china has a unique pattern that helps make it recognizable. There is often a central medallion that is either a bird or peony. Four or more panels number of panels depends on the size of the piece usually encircle the medallion with motifs that depict people, birds, butterflies and trees.
“This book is a milestone for dating Chinese porcelain, for museums, in time, it will become a ‘Standard’ for all serious collectors of Chinese Export Porcelain”.
Private kilns: The many types of antique porcelain marks from private kilns show that private kilns were generally more open to free expression. Their content shows more diverse information or traditional symbolic meanings inherent to Chinese culture:. Apart from the marks containing the reign name, there is a wealth of other marks with content that cannot be used for dating purposes.
However, the name of the shop or manufacturer is hardy usable for dating Chinese ceramics. Certain marks from the the Ming and especially the Qing dynasties are frequently found on later porcelain, made to order for court officials or persons of high rank. Some antique porcelain marks identify the name of the buyer or recipient , or did contain a dedication for the recipient when an item was a gift.
However, all these cannot be used for dating ceramics.
PORCELAIN, POLYCHROME CHINESE EXPORT – Type Index
In , a single Portuguese trading ship returning from Asia carried 1, pieces of Chinese porcelain. A Dutch ship making the same journey 50 years later brought 60, pieces. And by , about , pieces of Chinese porcelain were transported via Dutch trading vessels. In the span of one century, the fine, thin, white ceramics made from a clay called kaolin and fired in blazing hot kilns went from being a unique treasure for a handful of wealthy European connoisseurs to a common household item, especially in the Netherlands.
Today, this porcelain is known in everyday English usage as china, and as early as the 17th century it was already being copied throughout Europe. How did china and other Asian commodities, such as Japanese lacquer chests, Ceylonese ivory cabinets and Indian silks, first come to the Western world, and what impact did the European appreciation for them have on the kinds of products that were produced?
Fine quality Chinese pottery dates as far back as 7, years ago. Neolithic Chinese potters produced highly artistic pottery in a variety of styles.
Most of the porcelain shipped from China to the West during the 17th Century through the 19th Century was formerly known as “China trade porcelain”, although now it is commonly referred to as Chinese export porcelain, including the blue and white Canton ware. Canton porcelain was manufactured and fired in the kilns at the Provence of Ching-Te Chen, then sent by the East India Trading Company to the seaside port of Canton for the final decorating process by Chinese artists and craftsmen working in the enameling shops.
Thus the name “Canton” alludes as much to the decoration and design on the ware as well as its port of export. Chinese Canton ware was shipped to Europe and America in the holds of cargo ships which resulted in its becoming known as “ballast ware”. The Canton blue and white patterned dinner and tea sets were favored by George Washington as well as the merchant classes. Eventually, it became an integral part of important private, as well as public, collections throughout Post Revolutionary America, being the province of the collector and curator.
The U. Utilitarian in appearance with outer rims having unsymmetrical ridges and indentations, Canton has several characteristics that distinguish it from other Chinese export porcelains although it is very similar to the blue and white Nanking pattern. Both Canton and Nanking ware are hand painted with a composition of a coastal village scene consisting of tea house, arched bridges, willow trees, meandering streams and distant mountains and an absence of figures.
The most obvious difference between Canton and Nanking patterns is noted in the design of the borders of each.
Department of Anthropology
Chinese Export Famille Verte Mug, ca. Chinese Export Porcelain Plate, decorated for Dutch market, ca. Pair of Imari Plates, 19th Century Japanese. Imari Vase with Lid, Chinese Export ca. Imari Jar with Lid, ca. Rose Medallion Plate, Chinese Export.
CHINESE DOUBLE DRAGON Coin No Date Ancient China Tael double dragon For Sale on – A fine pair of Chinese Export porcelain vases and covers. Dating.
Blue and white “Kraak” paneled decoration on a thin porcelain body. Diameter 34 c. J E Nilsson Collection. The Portuguese were the first to establish regular trade with China over the sea. The first export porcelain got to be known as Kraak porcelain , probably after the Portuguese Carrack’s which were the ships the Portuguese used for the trade. At the end of the 16th century, a most fascinating exchange of ideas started to occur between China and the West.
A regular trade with the West had indeed been going on since the time of the Roman Empire when China was known as Seres – the land of Silk. The Portuguese had established the first “modern” trading station in Canton as early as Very soon western merchants began to order copies of pieces they brought with them or from supplied patterns.